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Community of Practice Resources



Dr. Elizabeth Hanson-Smith
Professor emeritus, CSU, Sacramento
Computers for Education/Command Performance Language Institute

ehansonsmi at yahoo.com
http://webpages.csus.edu/~hansonsm/

Index of Reference Page Contents


This is a partially annotated list of references to a chapter in Hubbard and Levy's book on CALL for teachers:
Hanson-Smith, E. 2006. Communities of practice for pre- and in-service teacher education, in P. Hubbard & M. Levy, Eds.,  Teacher Education in CALL, pp. 301-315. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


The originators of the term "Community of Practice"

Lave, J. and Wenger, E. 1991. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Wenger, E. 1998. Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wenger, E. (2004a). Communities of practice: A brief introduction [Webpage]. Accessed 14 Aug 2004, at http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm. .


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Pedagogical and Epistomological Backgrounds

Dewey, J. (1916, 1944). Democracy and education. New York: The Macmillan Co. (1994). ILT Digital Classics. Retrieved from http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/dewey.html

Dewey, J. (1990). Dewey on education, ed. M. Dworkin. Classics in Education No. 3.  New York: Teachers College Press.

Grossman, P., Wineburg, S., & Woolworth, S. (2001). Toward a theory of teacher community. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 942–1012. Retrieved from http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 10833.

Piaget, J. (1951). The Psychology of Intelligence. London: Routledge.

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Elearnspace. Retrieved from: http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm

Unwin, L., Hughes, J., & Jewson, N., eds. (2006). Communities of practice: Critical perspectives. Oxford: Taylor & Francis.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning as a Social System. Retrieved from http://www.co-i-l.com/coil/knowledge-garden/cop/lss.shtml

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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Descriptions of CoPs

Allan, M. 2004. A peek into the life of online learning discussion forums: Implications for Web-based distance learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning [online journal], August, 2004. Accessed 9 Nov 2004 at http://www.irrodl.org/content/v5.2/allan.html.

Argan, M. T., Argan, M., & Suher, I. K. (2008). Emergence of virtual communities as means of communication: A case study on virtual health care communities. Paper presented at IABD's 20th annual meeting, April 3-5, 2008, Houston, TX. Accessed 6 July 2011 at http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde43/articles/article_16.htm. [See discussion blog at Online Learning Update.]

Bicknell, J. 1998. CMC case study [Webpage]. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at  http://www.homestead.com/prosites-vstevens/files/efi/bicknell.html

Coghlan, M. and Stevens, V. 2000. An online learning community: The students’ perspective. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Teaching in the Community Colleges Online Conference, 12-14 April 2000. Accessed 5 Nov 2004 at http://www.chariot.net.au/~michaelc/TCC2000.htm.

DuFour, R., Eaker, R., and DuFour, R., eds. (2005). On common ground: The power of professional learning communities. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Friesen, N., Tamura, Y., McGreal, R., and Okamoto, T. 2004. Metadata for synchronous and asynchronous collaborative learning environments. In  Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Advanced Technologies for E-learning and E-science, H. Wang, L. Esmahi, and J. L. Wu, (eds.), 37-43. New York: IEEE Computer Society Press. Version available at: http://collab-tech.jtc1sc36.org/doc/SC36_WG2_N0076.pdf.

Haythornthwaite, C., Kazer, M.K., Robins, J., and Shoemaker, S. 2000. Community development among distance learners: Temporal and technological dimensions. Journal of Computer-mediated Communication, 6 (1) [online journal]. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at  http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol6/issue1/haythornthwaite.html.

Johnson, C. M. 2002a. CoP Theory Overview  [Webpage]. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://sites.inka.de/%7EW3446/cop/index.html.

Johnson, C. M. 2002b. Organizational comparison of CoPs [Webpage]. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://sites.inka.de/manzanita/cop/cop_orgs_files/sitemap.htm.

Jones, Q. (1997) Virtual communities, virtual settlements and cyber-archaeology: A theoretical outline. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3 (3) [online journal]. Access 10 Nov 2004 at http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue3/jones.html.

Kimble, C., Hildreth, P., & Bourdon, I. (2008). Communities of practice: Creating learning environments for educators. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Lieberman, A. and Miller, L. (2008). Teachers in professional communities: Improving teaching and learning. New York: Teachers College Press.

Liu, G. Z. 1999. Virtual community presence in Internet Relay Chatting. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 5 (1) [online journal]. Accessed 10 Nov 2004 at  http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol5/issue1/liu.html.

Newgarden, K. (2009). Annotated bibliography—Twitter, social networking, and communities of practice. TESL-EJ, 13(2). Retrieved from http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/past-issues/volume13/ej50/ej50int/

Preece, J., and Maloney-Krichmar, D. 2003. Online communities. In Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, J. Jacko and A. Sears (eds.), 596-620. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Draft available online at http://www.ifsm.umbc.edu/~preece/paper/7 Handbook v.17Final.pdf.

Simpson, J. 2003. The discourse of computer-mediated communication: A study of an online community. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Reading, School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at http://www.education.leeds.ac.uk/research/james_simpson.htm.

Smith, B. L., MacGregor, J., Matthews, R., & Gabelnick, F. (2004). Learning communities: Reforming undergraduate education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Steele, J. (2002) Herding cats: A descriptive case study of a virtual language learning community. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at http://netdial.caribe.net/~jhsteele/catstoc.html.

Stevens, V. 2000. Developing a community in online language learning. Proceeds of the Military Language Institute's Teacher-to-Teacher Conference: Tools of the Trade, May 3-4 2000, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/vance_stevens//papers/webheads/t2t2000.htm.
[Describes the Writing for Webheads free online help for students.]

Stevens, V. (2009). Webheads and Distributed Communities of Practice. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/View?id=ddkc6v4f_90fk3xz24q.

Williams, J. B., and Jacobs, J. 2004. Exploring the use of blogs as learning spaces in the higher education sector. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 20 (2): 232-247. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet20/res/williams.html.

Wenger, E. (2004a). Communities of practice: A brief introduction. [Webpage]. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm.

Zhao, Y., & Rop, S. 2001. A citical review of the literature on electronic networks as reflective discourse communities for inservice teachers. CIERA Report #3014. Available by pdf file at http://www.ciera.org.


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Specific Aspects of CoPs

domain:

Wenger, E. (2004a). Communities of practice: A brief introduction. [Webpage]. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm.

Wenger, E. (2004b). Cultivating communities of practice: A quick start-up guide [Webpage]. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at http://www.ewenger.com/theory/start-up_guide_PDF.pdf.


social scaffolding:

Haythornthwaite, C., Kazer, M.K., Robins, J., and Shoemaker, S. 2000. Community development among distance learners: Temporal and technological dimensions. Journal of Computer-mediated Communication, 6 (1) [online journal]. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at  http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol6/issue1/haythornthwaite.html.

Johnson, C. M. 2003. Establishing an online community of practice for instructors of English as a Foreign Language. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Nova Southeastern University. Accessed 14 Aug 2003 at http://www.scis.nova.edu/~johnschr/.

Woods, R. H., and Baker, J. D. (2004). Interaction and immediacy in online learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 5 (2, August 2004)  [online journal]. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at  http://www.irrodl.org/content/v5.2/woods-baker.html.

Ebeltoft, N. and Nyrop, S. (2001). "Cooperative cultures in sociotechnical  communities." (Trans., S. Nyrop). Dansk Paedagogisk Tidssdrift, 4 (2001) [online journal]. Accessed 14 Aug 2004 at http://home19.inet.tele.dk/susnyrop/helpful.html.


longevity as a social entity:

Jones, Q. (1997) Virtual communities, virtual settlements and cyber-archaeology: A theoretical outline. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3 (3) [online journal]. Access 10 Nov 2004 at http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue3/jones.html.


lurking/peripheral participation:

Lave, J. and Wenger, E. 1991. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Nonnecke, B., and Preece, J. 2001. Why lurkers lurk. A paper presented at the Americas Conference on Information Systems, August 3-5, 2001. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://www.ifsm.umbc.edu/~preece/paper/2%20AMCISlurker.0514.final.pdf.


importance of tools:

Hanson-Smith, E., and Al Othman, B. 2004. Tools for online collaboration. Paper presented at the Reading Matrix First International Online Conference on Second and Foreign Language Teaching and Research, September 25-26, 2004. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/ehansonsmi/reading_matrix/Tools_for_Collab.html.

Preece, J., and Maloney-Krichmar, D. 2003. Online ommunities. In Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, J. Jacko and A. Sears (eds.), 596-620. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Draft available online at http://www.ifsm.umbc.edu/~preece/paper/7 Handbook v.17Final.pdf.

Stevens, V. 2000. Developing a community in online language learning. Proceeds of the Military Language Institute's Teacher-to-Teacher Conference: Tools of the Trade, May 3-4 2000, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/vance_stevens//papers/webheads/t2t2000.htm.
[Describes the Writing for Webheads free online help for students.]

Stevens, V. (2009). Webheads and Distributed Communities of Practice. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/View?id=ddkc6v4f_90fk3xz24q

Valdez, G., Fulton, K., Blomeyer, Jr., R., Glenn, A., and Wimmer, N. 2004. Effective technology integration in teacher education: A comparative study of six programs. Innovate 1(1) [electronic journal]. Accessed 31 Oct 2004 at http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=articleandid=4.


peer mentoring:

Al Othman, B. 2003. How Participation in a CoP Informs and Influences Personal Teaching? [Webpage] Presentation at the TESOL Convention, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, March 26, 2003. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at TESOL 2003 Convention, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Valdez, G., Fulton, K., Blomeyer, Jr., R., Glenn, A., and Wimmer, N. 2004. Effective technology integration in teacher education: A comparative study of six programs. Innovate 1 (1) [online journal]. Accessed 31 Oct 2004 at http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=articleandid=4.


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Short-term Collaborations


with students:

GLOBE
- collaborative science projects. http://www.globe.gov/.

iEarn - creative collaborations in many areas of the school curriculum. http://iearn.org/.

Yeh, A., GonzŠlez, D., and MŁhren, A. 2004a. Let's Get Physical [Webpage]. Aiden Yeh's Advanced Listening and Speaking Class, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://dcyeh.com/sy0304/2ndsem/groupa_projects/tpr/.

Yeh, A., GonzŠlez, D., and MŁhren, A. 2004b, 10 March. Voice and Text Conference [website]. Accessed 5 Nov 2004 at http://home.planet.nl/%7Emhren000/tpr/index.html.


with other teachers:

Al Othman, B. 2003. How Participation in a CoP Informs and Influences Personal Teaching? [Webpage] Presentation at the TESOL Convention, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, March 26, 2003. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at TESOL 2003 Convention, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Almeida d'…Áa, T. 2004. Teresa's Blog for The Learning Classroom Course [Blog]. Accessed 4 Feb 2005 at http://teresa-engvenblog.blogspot.com/.

Hanson-Smith, E., GonzŠlez, D. and Zeinstejer, R. 2004, July 22. Chat log for the TI Summer Festival Webheads Session [Webpage]. Accessed 2 Nov 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/ehansonsmi/festival/chatlog.html.

de Martins, D. 2004, 14 Sept. The Learning Classroom: A Blended Experience [website]. Annenberg/CPB. Accessed 6 Feb 2005 at http://www.doris3meflcenter.bravehost.com/the_learning_classroomwelcome.htm.

Stevens, V., Freed, A., GonzŠlez, G., Hanson-Smith, E., Jones, C., and Yeh, A. 2004. Enhancing online communities with voice and webcams: Webheads in Action Pre-Convention Institute (PCI) at the annual TESOL Convention, Long Beach, CA, March 30, 2004 [Webpage]. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/vance_stevens/papers/evonline2002/pci2004.htm.

Tapped In is home to many teacher groups. U.S. National Science Foundation, Sun Microsystems, and SRI International Center for Technology. http://www.tappedin.org.


with novice teachers / in-service

Dahlman, A. and Tahtinen, S. (2006). Virtual basegroup: E-mentoring in a reflective electronic support network. In E. Hanson-Smith and S. Rilling (Eds.), Learning languages through technology (pp. 221–232). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.


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Examples of Mistaken Notions of CoPs

Gradually the term "community" is being replaced by "learning network," which is a clearer understanding of the conditions for community.

Brooks, S. and Byles, B. 2000; update: 2004, Oct 20. Internet4Classrooms [website]. Accessed 1 Nov 2004 at http://www.internet4classrooms.com/index.htm.
[Calls itself a "collaborative project" and links to a site where a conversation partner can be found. However, there is little provision for sustained interaction or peer mentoring among teachers who might use the site.]

Frank, C. and Davie, L. 2001. Creating online communities for critical thinking, reading and writing. Paper presented at the Sixth Annual Teaching in the Community Colleges Online Conference, April 17-19, 2001. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/tcon01/papers/frank.html.
[Treats any online course generally as a "community."]

Online Teaching: The e-Teaching Community [website]. 2011. Available at http://e-teaching.wiziq.com/.
[Based around a particular video conferencing tool, it works by members posting blogs on topics generated by presentations at WizIG. In existence since 2011. It is hard to see how this "community" can evolve easily when the blog posts and their comments are isolated from each other.]


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E-Lists for CALL Teachers

Neteach-L [Electronic list]. Rev. 30 June 2004. J. Falsetti and S. Moody (co-owners). Accessed at http://www.ilc.cuhk.edu.hk/english/neteach/main.html.
[Formerly held MOO sessions, but these have been discontinued; e-list only.]

LLTI (The Language Learning and Technology Information Forum) [Electronic list]. 2004, August. Available at listserv@listserv.dartmouth.edu. Archives available at http://listserv.dartmouth.edu/archives/llti.html.

EUROCALL Special Interest Groups [website]. 2003, October 15. Available at http://www.eurocall-languages.org/sigs.htm#InSTIL.

TESLCA-L [Electronic list]. 2004, August 15. Available at http://www.lsoft.com/SCRIPTS/WL.EXE?SL1=TESLCA-LandH=CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU.

Cyber-Langues. Association of teachers of modern languages who use information and communications technology. The French Ministry of National Education, Advanced Studies, and Research. (Cyber-Langues, 2004).
[Has an RSS news feed and hosts a yearly colloquium on land.]

Yahoo Groups Index - use the Search engine to find a large number of groups for various types of educational communities.


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Examples of Authentic and Emerging Online Communities of Practice for Language Teachers

The CoPs explored here depend on both asynchronous mailing lists or forums and synchronous, real time, interactive tools, including text and voice chat, whiteboards, Webcams, and online conferences to enhance and foster ongoing social relationships well beyond the typical professional electronic list, membership association, or annual conference. Thus, teachers are able to participate hands-on with the newest ICT discoveries, quickly find mentors or advice, and communicate on an almost daily basis with like-minded members.

Academic Writing [electronic group]. 2003, Dec 31. E. Hanson-Smith, Moderator. Available at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/academic_writing.
[Mainly a support group to provide email, exercises, writing activities, and resources to teachers and their classes. Currently only individual students are using the group. The related teacher group, http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AcWriting_Teachers, is active only when questions arise.]

ARCALL (Argentine Computer Assisted Language Learning [electronic group]. Full information available at http://arcall.pbworks.com/.
[Includes a Yahoo Group, blog, Twitter group, and Ning (soon to be replaced). Offers topics regularly in using educational technology. Bi-lingual English-Spanish and international.]

Australian Flexible Learning Framework [website]. 2000; updated 4 Nov 2004. Accessed 5 Nov 2004 at http://www.flexiblelearning.net.au/.
[The original grant program ended in 2005, and AFLF now offers a mix of online, on-land, free, and fee-based programs. There is some indication that "community" may eventally be revived.]

Dekita.org. 2005. Moderators: B. Dieu, A. Campbell, R. Amman. Available at http://dekita.org/.
[Teachers using blogs share their students' work with other teachers and students.]

Learning with Computers [online community]. Moderators: G. Baya, et al. Available at http://groups.yahoo.com/group.learningwithcomputers.
[Offers 6-8 week sessions focusing on topics in online teaching learning. Beginners are welcome. Community members contribute resources (see the archive at http://learningwithcomputers07.pbwiki.com/ for the 2007 sessions), and participate in TESOL CALL Interest Section's Electronic Village Online.]

Learning Times [online community]. Available at http://www.learningtimes.net.
[Uses Elluminate, a voice and video conferencing system with many helpful features for presentation management; a number of thriving communities, such as Webheads, meet regularly at LT.]

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching [online community]. Available at http://www.merlot.org.
[Resources contributed by members of the many discipline-wide "communities." Sponsors online conferences and facilitates collaborations among members in the various disciplines. Uses Second Life for community meetings.]

The Reading Matrix [online journal]. 2003. Accessed 4 Nov 2004 at  http://www.readingmatrix.com/.
[Offers online tools, annual online conference, a TESL forum, and opportunities to share comments about the journal's contents.]

SANTEC: Society and Network for Technology in Collaboration [website]. 2006. Accessed 16 June 2010 at http://santec.uwc.ac.za/.
[E-list fosters collaborations in support of education and development in sub-Saharan Africa. Focuses mainly on online conferences, including synchronous meetings. Note: Homepage was not functioning in June 2010.]

Tapped In [online community]. U.S. National Science Foundation, Sun Microsystems, and SRI International Center for Technology. Available at http://www.tappedin.org.
[Offers virtual offices, text chat meeting spaces, and archiving for a wide range of educational communities, both K-12 and tertiary.]

VET E-portfolios Community of Practice. 2009-2011. Available at https://sites.google.com/site/eportfoliocommunity/home.
[Presentations, videos on best practices, resources, ideas, etc., for Vocational Education and Training. This CoP shares ideas and creates standards for using eportfolios for learners. Artifacts of conferences, such as 2011 EpCoP MOOC, and link to group wikis.]

Webheads in Action. 2001. Moderator: V. Stevens. Available at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/evonline2002_webheads.
[ESL/EFL teachers provide peer mentoring and experimentation with new Internet technologies, particularly for communications and multimedia. Very active email list and related wikis, Ning groups, blogs, Twitter group, etc.; weekly online voice chats and biennial online "convergences" are offered.]

Webloggers. 2005. Moderators: A. Campbell, B. Dieu, and G. Stanley. Available at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/weblogging/.
[The initial YG is now supported by the Blogstream Salon every Sunday at TI, and the group fosters the community blog at Dekita.org (2005), available at http://www.dekita.org.]



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Starting a Community


Allen, M. 1999. Don't be a troll! Using the Internet for successful higher education. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://smi.curtin.edu.au/NetStudies/docs/allen/AllenHighered1999.doc.

Garber, D. 2004. "XXXIV: Growing virtual communities." International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, August, 2004 [online journal]. Accessed 2 Feb 2005 at  http://www.irrodl.org/content/v5.2/technote4.html.

Johnson, C. M. 2003. Establishing an online community of practice for instructors of English as a Foreign Language. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Nova Southeastern University. Accessed 14 Aug 2003 at http://www.scis.nova.edu/~johnschr/.

Martin-Kniep, G. O. (2004).  Developing learning communities through teacher expertise. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Shapiro N. S., & Shapiro, N. (1999). Creating learning communities: A practical guide to winning support, organizing for change, and implementing programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossy-Bass.

Wenger, E. (2004b). Cultivating communities of practice: A quick start-up guide [Webpage]. Accessed August 14, 2004, at http://www.ewenger.com/theory/start-up_guide_PDF.pdf.


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Other Useful Resources


Almeida d'…Áa, T. 2005. Index of "Webheads in Action" Web Pages and Related Sites [Webpage]. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/wia-index.htm.
[Index to Webheads' activities and projects.]

BelNATE Online Workshops [online archive]. 2004, Nov 3-4. Recordings of presentations at the Sixth International BelNATE-IATEFL Conference: Teaching English as a World Language in the Information Age, November 3-5, 2004. Minsk, Belarus: Minsk State Linguistics University. Accessed 4 Nov 2004 at http://home.learningtimes.net/learningtimes?go=570543.
[Collaborative presentations by Webheads on the topics: CMC tools, weblogging, academic writing.]

Brooks, S. and Byles, B. 2000; update: 2004, Oct 20. Internet4Classrooms [website]. Accessed 1 Nov 2004 at  http://www.internet4classrooms.com/flang.htm.
[Participating teachers may add their own exercises to the archives.]

Galarneau, L. 2004, 19 July. Virtual worlds are real worlds. Relevancy [Weblog]. Accessed 5 Nov 2004 at http://www.oddwater.com/relevancy/index.php.
[Discusses the reality of online friendships.]

GonzŠlez, D. 2003. Teaching and learning through chat: A taxonomy of educational chat for EFL/ESL. Teaching English with Technology, 3(4) [online journal]. Accessed 9 Nov 2004 at http://www.iatefl.org.pl/call/j_review15.htm.
[Categorizes various kinds of chat and their uses.]

GonzŠlez, D., Almeida d'…Áa, T., Jordano, M., and Nyrop, S. 2003; updated 13 Jan 2004. Becoming a Webhead: EVOnline 2004 Session. [Webpage]. Accessed 10 Nov 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/bawebhead/.
[Mini-course and resources needed to use the Internet.]

Hanson-Smith, E., and Bauer-Ramazani, C. 2004. Professional development: The Electronic Village Online of the TESOL CALL Interest Section. TESL-EJ, 8(2) [online journal]. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://www-writing.berkeley.edu/TESL-EJ/ej30/int.html.
[Describes the EVO history and sessions offered in 2004.]

Hanson-Smith, E., Al Othman, B., and Yeh, A. 2004. Teaching writing online. Electronic presentation at the Sixth International BelNATE-IATEFL Conference, November 3-5 2004. Archived recording available at http://home.learningtimes.net/learningtimes?go=570543.
[Describes three approaches to teaching composition online using Academic Writing YG.]

Stevens, V. 2004, April 27. Webheads in Action: Communities of practice online: Portal Page [Webpage]. Accessed 6 Nov 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/vance_stevens/papers/evonline2002/webheads.htm.
[Links to tools and community members.]

Su, C-c. 2004. OpenSource for Educators [Moodle site]. Available at http://moodle.ntjcpa.edu.tw/index.php.
[Offers free space for short-term teacher collaborations.]

TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages). 2004. Available at http://www.tesol.org.
[International professional organization; currently considering developing an active online community.]



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Updated 17 July 2011